When I heard there was a Slave Hospital at Good Hope Plantation in Trelawny, I was eager to see it. At that point, I didn’t know of another plantation that had its own hospital.
Now mostly in ruins, the remains of the 300-bed hospital, which was built around 1798, suggest a large building that was designed in almost the same Georgian style as the others at Good Hope.
Good Hope Great House & Plantation, one of Jamaica’s largest, was owned by John Tharp, whose holdings at the time of his death in 1804, were valued at approximately $4 million dollars, including 2,800 enslaved. Next to the hospital, Tharp also established a Free School for children who showed promise. A doctor also lived on the estate.
Tharp, who was born in Hanover, Jamaica, was 23 years old when he purchased Good Hope in 1767 from Thomas Williams. He treated his slaves well, making sure they were clothed, fed and housed.
My negroes have increased and are happy. They kill me with their constant visits and attentions. It gives pleasure, though I am fatigued to death before the day is half gone for I must talk and shake hands with every one of them.
That’s not to say that they were free. They were disposable property that were listed among his livestock with a value next to their names. But it’s his making available basic needs that earned their loyalty and explains why Good Hope remained untouched during revolts that destroyed other plantations. Good Hope continued to prosper even after the abolition of the trade in 1838. The sugar estate on the property remained in operation until 1902.
Only parts of the walls and steps of the Slave Hospital remain. The current owners is use it as an aviary.
Linking up this week with Travel Photo Thursday, which Nancie at Budget Travel Sandbox organizes.Be sure to head over and check out more photos from locations around the world.
A few days after I arrived home, Michael knocked on my backdoor. A reddish fruit sat cushioned on the palm of his outstretched hand. I had not idea what it was and I was hoping he hadn’t noticed the slight look of ambivalence on my face.
The skin was smooth, almost velvety to the touch but it had a few marks that made me wonder if a little fruit fly had built a home in it.
It’s a custard apple, my cousin said when she dropped by later and I felt silly about my initial ambivalence. Still, I searched my memory trying to recall if I’d ever seen or eaten one before.
The skin gave way easily as I pressed it and a fragrant and familiar scent greeted me when I broke the fruit open. The pulp looked exactly like the fruit we call sweetsop, with the same granular, custardy consistency (probably how it got its name) and just as sugar-sweet. Like the sweetsop, it had small sacs covering black seeds.
So what’s the custard apple? The custard apple (annona reticulata) is from the same family as the fruit we call sweetsop in Jamaica. In fact, when I searched for custard apple, I found several sites that described the sweetsop instead.
Custard Apple or Sweetsop?
I was confused and curious. Did I have the right fruit? I emailed a copy of the photo to my aunt. She confirmed that it was the custard apple. I also asked a friend from Trinidad. Many of the fruits we have in Jamaica are found in other parts of the Caribbean but usually called by different names.
I thought Leesha was describing the custard apple until she printed a photo from the Internet and showed it to me. It was the sweetsop (annona squamosa), which is also called sugar apple. I added Jamaica to my search parameters and found one photo that looked like the fruit we call custard apple but she didn’t recognize it. Neither did my friend, Delma, who’s from Grenada.
The custard apple is known by many names including Jamaica apple, netted custard apple, bullock’s heart and bull’s heart (some think it’s shaped like a heart). A native of the Caribbean, it is found in Central and South America, Africa and Asia.
It is full of vitamins, iron, fiber, protein, magnesium, potassium, and other minerals.
Like the naseberry I wrote about in last week’s FoodieTuesday, the custard apple is in season now. So if you’re headed to Jamaica, see if you can find it and give it a try. I think you’ll like it.
The British had such a long colonial history in Jamaica (1655–1962) that we usually forget that the island was a Spanish colony for more than 150 years (1494-1655).
We forget, until we come across places like Savanna la Mar, Ocho Rios and Spanish Town. Nowhere else has the struggle for Jamaica played out on a grander scale than in Spanish Town.
Originally called Villa de la Vega (later Santiago de la Vega), Spanish Town was founded in 1534 and became the colony’s second capital in 1538 after Spain relocated the seat of its government from Sevilla la Nueva (New Seville was named capital in 1509).
The Spanish laid out the town with its plaza mayor the administrative center of the capital, which included the governor’s mansion, courthouse and a tavern.
When the British captured Jamaica in 1655, they put their stamp on the capital renaming it Spanish Town, redesigning it on a grid and filling it with Georgian structures.
The center was built on a square that is formed by the intersection of four streets – Adelaide (north), Constitution (south), White (east) and King (west). It is now called Emancipation Square.
Four important buildings, some in ruins, ring Emancipation Square: Rodney Memorial, the Old Courthouse, the Parish Council and the Old King’s House.
Located on Adelaide Street on what was a Spanish tavern is the memorial commemorating British Admiral George Rodney, who defeated a French fleet that tried to invade the island in 1782.
The statue of Rodney, dressed like a Roman emperor, was created by John Bacon in 1801. Two canons flanking the statue were taken from the French ship. The country’s Archives is housed in the building behind the Memorial.
The Old Courthouse
Facing the Rodney Memorial, with the canons trained directly at it, is the old courthouse on Constitution Street, now mostly in ruins. The courthouse was built in 1819 on the site that housed a Spanish chapel and cemetery, and later a British armory. The courthouse was destroyed by fire in 1986.
House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, on White Street, was completed in 1762. It now houses the mayor’s office and the chambers of the St. Catherine Parish Council.
Old King’s House
Built in 1762 on the site of the Old Spanish Hall of Audience, King’s House, located on King Street, was the official residence of the governor of Jamaica until 1872 when the British relocated the capital and the governor’s residence from Spanish Town to Kingston.
Since there are two residences called King’s House, the Spanish Town residence is referred to as Old King’s House. Sadly, Old King’s House was destroyed by fire in 1925. Now only the front of the building remains.
Old King’s House is significant in Jamaica’s history. It was from its steps that the governor read the Emancipation Proclamation on August 1, 1834, which freed the country’s enslaved peoples.
Other Important Events in Spanish Town’s History:
Calico Jack Rackham was tried and convicted in Spanish Town in 1720
The treaty that gave Jamaica’s Maroons their autonomy was signed in Spanish Town in 1725.
Captain William Bligh, who brought breadfruit to Jamaica, visited Spanish Town in 1793.
Simon Bolivar, the influential political and military leader from Venezuela, visited the capital in 1815.
In 1834, Governor Eyre read the Proclamation, which abolished slavery, on the steps of Old King’s House.
In 1865, Paul Bogle was denied an audience with Governor Eyre after he marched from St. Thomas to Spanish Town to plead the case of the people of St. Thomas. This later lead to the Morant Bay Rebellion.
Governor Eyre announced the suspension of the constitution following the Morant Bay Rebellion.
Queen’s College, Jamaica’s first university was established at Old King’s House in 1883 and operated in Spanish Town for a year.
Spanish Town has also housed the Registrar General’s Department, the Island Record Office and Genealogical Centre, and the Supreme Court. The town has been occupied continuously for almost 500 years.
Linking up with Travel Photo Thursday, which Nancie at Budget Travel Sandbox organizes.Be sure to head over and check out more photos from locations around the world.
On a recent trip from Jamaica to New York, my friend and neighbor asked if I could take some frozen naseberries for a relative of hers who, she explained loves naseberries.
She drove around town until she found a vendor selling the delicious fruit at about $2.50 for a half-dozen. She returned home, flush with a feeling of accomplishment and prepared the naseberries for me to take. Sadly, after all that effort, the Customs Department didn’t allow me to bring the naseberries into the country.
I was disappointed, especially for my friend’s uncle who, I knew, would be anticipating his absolute favorite fruit – the naseberry.
Also called sapodilla, the naseberry is a small, slightly round fruit that has the same brown color as a kiwi. The flesh is light brown or rust colored, tastes a bit like cinnamon and is sugar-sweet with small, black seeds. The naseberry is high in fiber and rich in antioxidents.
When ripe, the fruit is firm but pliable so you can just break it apart with the fingers and eat it. Some people also eat the skin but I’ve never tried it.
It’s unclear when this native of Mexico and Central America made it to the Caribbean where it is a perennial favorite. The trees can grow quite tall — up to a 100 feet — but you’ll find at least one in the backyard gardens of many Jamaicans.
Naseberries are now in season so if you’re headed to Jamaica before April or May when the season ends, you might see it at the breakfast buffet table at your hotel. If it isn’t, you can always ask for it.
We typically eat naseberries as I’ve described above but I found this recipe for Pork Adobo with Pineapple-Naseberry Salsa in one of our local papers, the Jamaica Gleaner, that I can’t wait to try. The combination of the pineapple and naseberry is already making my mouth water.
Leaving Old Harbour, we drive north for about three miles then turn off the main road and into a small community. We follow the signs pointing to Colbeck Castle, our destination, which we reach after going through what looks like a private road.
We drive this narrow road pass a few houses and small farms. Two men, standing next to a car, wave to us as we drive by. A few yards further and I see it, a stone and brick structure which sticks out above the vegetation. It feels entirely out of place and absolutely out of time. It’s Colbeck Castle.
Continuing on the road, the only visible access to the property, we drive around the back and to the side and park near an L-shaped building that is at one corner of the property.
Exiting the vehicle, I take in the imposing and impressive rectangular mansion before me. A stone and brick two-story, it is the centerpiece of the property and is marked off by a rope – a clear sign to keep our distance from the building, which is now in ruins.
Colbeck Castle was likely built around 1680. It measures about 114 feet wide by 90 feet deep.
Four towers, one at each corner, make up the third story. They provide unparalleled views of the surrounding area and as far as the Caribbean Sea, some ten miles away. The towers served as the castle’s defense system (against the Spanish). Four outer buildings sit at each corner of the property.
Brick ovens in one of the buildings suggest that it was used as a kitchen. This building also has a sunken bath and at least three enclosures that probably were toilets. A three-foot high brick wall rings the property.
Colbeck Castle got its name from its owner, Colonel John Colbeck, who came to Jamaica in 1655 – the same year the British captured the island from the Spanish — as a member of the expeditionary forces that was led by Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables.
As was the custom at the time, Colbeck was given land – 1,340 acres – for his services. During his short time in Jamaica, John Colbeck became of a member of the Assembly and was Speaker of the House from 1672-73.
It is unclear whether Colbeck Castle was ever finished or whether Colbeck lived in it as he died in 1682. It doesn’t appear as if he left an heir as there is no record of the name after his death. He was buried in Spanish Town.
Colbeck Castle, one of the oldest ruins in Jamaica, was declared a national monument in 1990.
Linking up this week with Travel Photo Thursday, which Nancie at Budget Travelers Sandbox organizes. Be sure to head over and check out more photos from locations around the world.
The ortanique looks much like an orange and could easily be mistaken for one. The difference is in its shape — it’s typically a bit flat on top and bottom.
This native of Jamaica, a hybrid of the orange and tangerine, gets its name from orange (or), tangerine (tan) and unique (ique). A deliciously sweet fruit, with a hint of tang, the ortanique is a favorite with Jamaicans.
But there’s a bit of confusion about its origin – at least in some circles. Several sites list Charles Jackson as the creator of the fruit, a few others list David Daniel Phillips and still another mentions a Mr. Swaby.
Digging a bit further, I found a post on Facebook that credits David Daniel Phillips as the originator of the ortanique. According to Danielle-Beverley Phillips, a descendant of Phillips, Jackson, Swaby and others got their seedlings and plants from the Phillips nursery, and in 1939, the Jamaica Agricultural Society recognized Phillips as the creator of the ortanique plant and fruit.
Although there is confusion surrounding the origin of the ortanique, there is none about its popularity. The ortanique has been one of Jamaica’s major export products since the 1930s, when it was shipped primarily to Panama, the UK, New Zealand and Australia. Today, the ortanique can be found in supermarkets in the US and Canada.
Ortaniques are grown mainly in Manchester which, because if its particular soil combination, produces a special type of fruit. However, there are farms in other parishes.
The ortanique in the photo above comes from Good Hope Plantation in Trelawny. Good Hope grows ortaniques along with other citrus fruits, and packages them on site for export. The boxed fruits above were headed to Canada.
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While doing research online two years ago, I happened on information about historic preservation and Archeology Awareness Week in Jamaica. My interest piqued, I followed a link to the website for Falmouth Heritage Renewal (FHR), a charitable organization that is involved in historic preservation in Jamaica.
On FHR’s home page was an announcement about a free walking tour of Falmouth. I fired off an email and scheduled a tour that same week, a day after Prince Harry visited.
In a presentation prior to the start of the tour, FHR’s Executive Director, Dr. Ivor Conolley, explained the history of FHR, the projects it had completed as well as those underway. I also found out that FHR provides training, apprenticeship and mentoring programs for youths and adults interested in historic preservation. It also repairs homes for residents who can either donate labor or agree not to sell for a specified time after the work is completed.
I was so impressed by FHR’s work and activism that after the presentation and tour, I heard myself offering to help. Several months later, I was assisting them to organize its first three-day preservation seminar for architects, engineers and other professionals in the building trades.
FHR partnered with the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) in the UK, and two architects and an engineer flew to Jamaica to present at the seminar. Along with local preservation professionals, they gave hands on demonstrations of preservation techniques, including a traditional burning of limestone to make lime mortar. The seminar was so well received that participants suggested that FHR make it an annual event.
This year, the seminar will run from today to February 28th. Here are some of the photos from last year’s.
Preparing lime mortar.
Using lime mortar to repair a damaged stone wall. (Photos from FHR.)
A few of FHR’s projects.
In 1996, the Government of Jamaica declared Falmouth Historic District a National Monument. The historic town celebrates the 245th anniversary of its founding this year.
Linking to Travel Photo Thursday, which Nancie at Budget Travelers Sandbox organizes. Be sure to head over and check out more photos from locations around the world.
With its lumpy peel and lopsided shape, the UGLI® is the ugly duckling of the citrus family. But don’t let appearances sway you. The ugli proves the adage: beauty is skin deep, ugly goes to the bone, or in this case, the core.
Peel back its yellow-green skin, which is soft and surprisingly easy to remove, and the ugli reveals several light pink pegs bursting with an unusual amount of sweet and slightly tangy juice and few, sometimes no seeds.
The ugli is a cross between the Seville orange (which gives it its dimpled skin), the grapefruit (from which it derives its color), and the tangerine (from which it gets its loose skin), was developed by Jamaican agronomists.
Called ugli because of its appearance, the fruit was found growing wild near Browns Town in the parish of St. Ann about 90 years ago. A commercial variety was later developed. Ugli is registered under trademark and is exported to the US, UK, Canada, Scandinavia and some Eastern European countries.
The ugli has 45 calories, 2 grams of dietary fiber and 70% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C. It can last up to 6 days unrefrigerated, and a week or more in the refrigerator.
If you’re in Jamaica during the citrus season (November/December to April/May), you should ask to try the ugli. It’s not as common as its forebears and because of that, is typically more expensive.
On the other hand, you might be lucky to meet someone who’s got a tree or two in their backyard. I hope you get to try it.
Ugli is perfect for sweet and savory recipes. I’ve used it mainly in juices and fruit salads but I’d love to try this Ugli Duckling from ugli.com.
With so many Jamaican homeowners embracing modern design, I’m always pleasantly surprised when I see gingerbread houses, especially ones that seem relatively new. Gingerbread houses probably came to Jamaica around the turn of the century.
My friend and I spotted this gingerbread house in Trelawny. We had spotted some lovely green bananas and stopped to buy a bunch. The house was directly across the street from the farmer and the minute I saw it – it was such a delight to see – I forgot why we’d stopped in the first place.
After he cut the bunch we decided on, I asked the farmer who asked the resident who graciously allowed me to take a photo. Unfortunately, he wasn’t the owner and couldn’t tell me much about the house, like the year it was built, for example. We guessed it to be about 50 years old.
Another day, another drive, this time in Westmoreland. I was surprised by the number of houses I saw that had gingerbread designs.
Similar in design as the one above, this sand-dashed house has sash windows, French doors, and detailing on the eaves. Sand dashing is a process that is used to retard fire in homes made from timber.
This eye-catching house sits on the side of a hill and at a bend in the road. We had to drive slowly on the way back so I wouldn’t miss it. We called but no one came to the door and a really high gate kept us out. I was a little bummed that I couldn’t get closer but I managed to put my camera on top of the gate, and extended the lens so I could get this shot.
A house like this, with its wooden shingled roof, is rarely seen these days. Wooden shingles are attractive to look at and keep the home cool but are the most expensive roofing material on the market. In addition, the shingles offer no protection from fires and are very labor intensive to install. Eventually, owners exchange them for corrugated zinc, which is less expensive.
Devon House and the shops on the property have some of the most beautiful gingerbread designs. When I took these photos last July, workers were replacing the wooden shingles on the shops in the background.
Linking to Travel Photo Thursday, which is organized by Nancie at Budget Travelers Sandbox. Be sure to head over and check out more photos from locations around the world.
Tamarind season runs from roughly January to March in Jamaica. The sour tasting fruit grows four or five in a pod, each with a small, flat black seed. When ripe, the pod becomes a light brown brittle shell that breaks easily to expose the sticky fruit.
Tamarind is indigenous to Africa and likely came to the Jamaica and the Caribbean with enslaved Africans. It is high in tartaric acid, B vitamins and calcium. Tamarind grows easily and can be found in tropical countries around the world. Is a favorite with children and adults who savor its sour taste.
There are many ways to enjoy tamarind, which we call tambrin. The best way by far, is to peel off the shell and eat it. Once the fruit hits your tongue, maybe even before, your mouth will begin to pucker. But that doesn’t stop the tamarind lover who can’t eat only one.
We also separate the fruit from the shell to make tamarind paste, and remove the pulp, add sugar and spices and roll it into tamarind balls (above), or make it into a drink, which is quite refreshing.
I hadn’t seen tamarind balls for a long time after I left Jamaica. Then I noticed them in a grocery store in the Washington, DC area, bought some and started eating them before I got to my car. As expected, my mouth began to water when the tamarind hit my tongue but it was the pepper that shook up my taste buds. I’d never had tamarind balls with pepper before. Ours is typically made with sugar and one or two spices. Curious, I looked at the package – it was made in Malaysia.
At one meeting of my book club, the discussion turned to tamarind. One of the members mentioned that she had found sweet tamarind in the supermarket. That shocked all of us — our group was mostly women from the Caribbean who were used to sour tamarind. So she promised and brought sweet and sour ones to the next meeting. We set aside the book we were supposed to be discussing, ate the tamarinds and reminisced about our childhoods. Almost everyone said they preferred the sour ones.
I love to use tamarind in cooking as it goes well with fish, seafood or meats. One of the dishes I prepared for Christmas dinner last year was roast pork with tamarind reduction. I did it on the fly so I don’t have a recipe but I found a Tamarind Jerk Pork recipe at yummily.com that I’m sharing below.
You can find tamarind in grocery stores or supermarkets that sell tropical or Asian foods. It is one of the ingredients that give Worcestershire sauce its flavor and color.
Tamarind Season in Jamaica – the period after Christmas
In Jamaica, the period after Christmas, when consumers have less to spend and stores experience a decline in sales, is called the tamarind season, possibly because it is the beginning of the planting season and only a few fruits, mostly citrus, are in season.
• 1 cinnamon stick, ground, or 1-2 tbsp ground cinnamon
• 2-3 chillies, chopped
• 2.5 cm ginger, grated
• 2 garlic cloves, roughly chopped
• 1 tbsp finely chopped thyme leaves
• 1 tsp light brown sugar
1. For the jerk marinade: place all the ingredients in a food processor and blend until smooth.
2. Make small incisions in the pork using a sharp knife and rub the marinade into the meat. Cover with cling film and chill for up to 48 hours, depending on the desired intensity of flavour, but at least overnight.
3. When ready to cook, preheat the oven to 200C/180C fan/Gas 6. Place the pork in a medium ovenproof baking dish, cover with foil and roast for 1½–2 hours, or until it is soft and well coloured. Alternatively the pork can be cooked on a barbecue.
4. Remove from the oven, leave to rest for 10-15 minutes then carve and serve.
By Silvena Rowe
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